This vignette illustrates how to get started with cellmigRation, an R library aimed at analyzing cell movements over time using multi-stack tiff images of fluorescent cells.
The software includes two modules:
Module 1: data import and pre-precessing. This module includes a series of functions to import tiff images, remove noise/background and detect cell/particles, (optional) automatically estimate optimal analytic parameters, compute cell tracks (movements) and basic stats. The first module is largely based on the FastTracks software written in Matlab by Brian DuChez (FastTracks, https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/60349-fasttracks, MATLAB Central File Exchange).
Module 2: advanced analyses and visualization. The second module includes a series of functions to compute advanced metrics/stats, exporting, automatically built visualizations, and generate interactive/3D plots.
This vignette guides the user through package installation, tiff file import, cell tracking, and a series of downstream analyses.
Importing TIFF files
Optimizing Tracking Params
Tracking Cell Movements
Basic migration stats
Aggregate Cell Tracks
Import and Pre-process Cell Tracks
Plotting tracks (2D and 3D)
Deep Trajectory Analysis
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cell Clustering
Damiano Fantini (Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA); Salim Ghannoum (University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway)
An exhaustive vignette is available at: https://www.data-pulse.com/projects/2020/cellmigRation/cellmigRation_v01.html
GitHub page: https://github.com/ocbe-uio/cellmigRation
For reproducibility of the output on this document, please run the following command in your R session before proceeding:
The package is currently available on Bioconductor. It can be installed using the following command:
if(!requireNamespace("BiocManager", quietly = TRUE)) install.packages("BiocManager") BiocManager::install("cellmigRation")
For this demo, the following libraries have to be loaded.
library(cellmigRation) library(dplyr) library(ggplot2) library(kableExtra)
In this vignette, we are going to analyze three images with the aim of illustrating the functions included in cellmigRation. The original TIFF files are available at the following URLs:
Note. TIFF files can be imported using the
LoadTiff() function. This function includes a series of (optional) arguments to attach meta-information to a TIFF image, for example the
condition arguments. Imported numeric images are stored as a trackedCells-class object.
trackedCells objects (imported from the corresponding TIFF files) are available as a list in the
cellmigRation package (
ThreeConditions object). These will be used for illustrating the functions of our package in this vignette.
# load data data(ThreeConditions) # An S4 trackedCells object ThreeConditions[] #> ~~~ An S4 trackedCells object ~~~ #> #> + Num of images: 7 #> + Optimized Params: No #> + Run w/ Custom Params: No #> + Cells Tracked: No #> + Stats Computed: No
This is an optional yet recommended step. Detecting fluorescent cells requires defining a series of parameters to maximize signal to noise ratio. Specifically,
diameter: size corresponding to the largest diameter of a cell (expressed in pixels). Ideally, we want to set this parameter to a value large enough to capture all cells (even the large ones), but small enough to exclude aggregates or large background particles (artifacts, bubbles)
lnoise: size corresponding to the smalles diameter of a cell (expressed in pixels). Ideally, we want to set this parameter to a value small enough to capture all cells (even the small ones), but large enough to exclude small background particles (artifacts, debris)
threshold: signal level used as background threshold. Signal smaller than threshold is set to zero
If the values of these arguments are known, you can skip this step. Alternatively, if you want to test a specific range of these values, you can run
OptimizeParams() manually specifying the ranges to be tested. By default, the function determines automatically a reasonable range of values to be tested for each argument based on the empirical distribution of signal and sizes of particles detected in the frame with median signal from a TIFF stack. This operation supports parallelization (recommended: parallelize by setting the
threads argument to a value bigger than 1).
Note: the user may request to visualize a plot. The output plot shows how many cells were detected for each combination of parameter values. By default, the pick #1 is selected for the downstream steps.
Note 2: for larger datasets, the user may wish to set the
threads argument below to a larger integer in order to benefit from paralellized operations. A theoretical upper bound to this argument would be the number of threads in your CPU—which you can check with
parallel::detectCores()—, but it is considered good practice to leave at least one thread for other system operations.
Note 3: the
getOptimizedParams() is a getter function to obtain the values of each optimized parameter.
# obtain optimized params getOptimizedParams(x1)$auto_params #> $lnoise #>  5 #> #> $diameter #>  16 #> #> $threshold #>  5
The central step of Module 1 is tracking cell movements across all frames of a multi-stack image (where each stack was acquired at a different time). This operation is carried out via the
CellTracker() function, which performs two tasks: i) identify all cells in each frame of the image; ii) map cells across all image frames, identify cell movements and return cell tracks. This operation supports parallelization. This function requires three parameters to be set:
threshold. These parameters can be set manually or automatically:
rely on the optimized params estimated using
rely on the optimized params estimated for a different
trackedCells object; using
OptimizeParams(); see the
the user can manually specify the parameter values; note that user-specified parameters will overwrite automatically-optimized values
Note 1: the user may request to visualize a plot for each frame being processed. The output plot shows cells that were detected for each combination of parameter values.
Note 2: it is possible to only include cells that were detected in at least a minimum number of frames by setting the
min_frames_per_cell argument. If so, cells detected in a small number of frames will be removed from the output.
Note 3: the user may parallelize (recommended when possible) this step by setting the
threads argument to a value bigger than 1.
# Track cell movements using optimized params x1 <- CellTracker( tc_obj = x1, min_frames_per_cell = 3, threads = 1, verbose = TRUE) # Track cell movements using params from a different object x2 <- CellTracker( ThreeConditions$ctrl02, import_optiParam_from = x1, min_frames_per_cell = 3, threads = 1)
# Track cell movements using CUSTOM params, show plots x3 <- CellTracker( tc_obj = ThreeConditions$drug01, lnoise = 5, diameter = 22, threshold = 6, threads = 1, maxDisp = 10, show_plots = TRUE)
It is possible to retrieve the output data.frame including information about cell movements (cell tracks) using the
getTracks() getter function.
# Get tracks and show header trk1 <- cellmigRation::getTracks(x1) head(trk1) %>% kable() %>% kable_styling(bootstrap_options = 'striped')
For compatibility and portability reasons, Module 1 includes a function to compute the same basic metrics/stats as in the FastTracks Matlab software by Brian DuChez. This step is performed via the
ComputeTracksStats() function. The results can be extracted from a
trackedCells object via dedicated getter functions:
getCellsStats(). Note however that more advanced stats are computed using functions included in the second module of
# Basic migration stats can be computed similar to the fastTracks software x1 <- ComputeTracksStats( x1, time_between_frames = 10, resolution_pixel_per_micron = 1.24) x2 <- ComputeTracksStats( x2, time_between_frames = 10, resolution_pixel_per_micron = 1.24) x3 <- ComputeTracksStats( x3, time_between_frames = 10, resolution_pixel_per_micron = 1.24) # Fetch population stats and attach a column with a sample label stats.x1 <- cellmigRation::getCellsStats(x1) %>% mutate(Condition = "CTRL1") stats.x2 <- cellmigRation::getCellsStats(x2) %>% mutate(Condition = "CTRL2") stats.x3 <- cellmigRation::getCellsStats(x3) %>% mutate(Condition = "DRUG1")
stats.x1 %>% dplyr::select( c("Condition", "Cell_Number", "Speed", "Distance", "Frames")) %>% kable() %>% kable_styling(bootstrap_options = 'striped')
# Run a t-test: sp.lst <- with( sp.df, split(Speed, f = Condition)) t.test(sp.lst$CTRL1, sp.lst$DRUG1, paired = FALSE, var.equal = FALSE) #> #> Welch Two #> Sample #> t-test #> #> data: sp.lst$CTRL1 and sp.lst$DRUG1 #> t = 7.6628, #> df = #> 3.7144, #> p-value = #> 0.002093 #> alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0 #> 95 percent confidence interval: #> 0.3876210 0.8499647 #> sample estimates: #> mean of x #> 1.1582615 #> mean of y #> 0.5394686
Two basic visualization functions are included in Module 1, and allow visualization of cells detected in a frame of interest, and tracks originating at a frame of interest. These functions are included in Module 1 (and not Module 2) since they take a
trackedCells-class object as input.
Cell tracks from multiple TIFF images can be aggregated together. All tracks form the different experiments/images are returned in a large data.frame. A new unique ID is assigned to specifically identify each cell track from each image/experiment. Different
trackedCells objects can be merged together based on the corresponding TIFF filename (default), or one of the meta-information included in the object(s).
Note 1: the data.frame returned by
aggregateTrackedCells() has a structure that aligns to the output of the
getTracks() function when the
attach_meta argument is set to TRUE.
Note 2: the data.frame returned by
aggregateTrackedCells() (or by
getTracks() with the
attach_meta argument set to TRUE) is the input of the
CellMig() function, and is the first step of Module 2.
Note 3: it is recommended to aggregate experiments/tiff files corresponding to the same condition (as shown below: for example, all replicates of the control cells) However, it is also possible to mix and match multiple treatments/timepoints/conditions, and filter the desired tracks right before running the
CellMig() step (not shown).
# aggregate tracks together all.ctrl <- aggregateTrackedCells(x1, x2, meta_id_field = "tiff_file") # Show header all.ctrl[seq_len(10), seq_len(6)] %>% kable() %>% kable_styling(bootstrap_options = 'striped')
#> tiff_file #> condition CTRL01.tif #> CTRL 28 #> tiff_file #> condition CTRL02.tif #> CTRL 25
# Prepare second input of Module 2 all.drug <- getTracks(tc_obj = x3, attach_meta = TRUE)
The second module of
cellmigRation is aimed at computing advanced stats and building 2D, 3D, and interactive visualizations based on the cell tracks computed in Module 1.
The first step entails the generation of a
CellMig-class object (S4 class) to store cell tracks data, and all output resulting from running Module 2 functions. After importing data into a
CellMig-class object, tracks are processed according to the experiment type (random migration in a plate vs. scratch-wound healing assay).
Note 1: the arguments passed to the
CellMig() function are:
trajdata a data.frame, the output from the previous module
expName a string, this is the name of the experiment
Note 1: the user is allowed to name the analysis; here we select a name that will be used as a prefix in the name of plots and tables.
Note 2: For Random Migration assays, the
rmPreProcessing() function is used for preprocessing; if a Scratch Wound Healing Assay was performed, the
wsaPreProcessing() function shall be used instead.
rmTD <- CellMig(trajdata = all.ctrl) rmTD <- setExpName(rmTD, "Control") # Preprocessing the data rmTD <- rmPreProcessing(rmTD, PixelSize=1.24, TimeInterval=10, FrameN=3) #> This dataset contains: 8 cell(s) in total #> This dataset contains: 8 cell(s) with more than three steps in their tracks #> The desired number of steps: 3 #> The maximum number of steps: 7 #> Only: 8 cells were selected #> All the tracks of the selected cells are adjusted to have only 3 steps
Multiple plotting functions allow the user to generate 2D or 3D charts and plots showing the movements of all cells, or part of the cells in the experiment.
# Plotting tracks (2D and 3D) plotAllTracks(rmTD, Type="l", FixedField=FALSE, export=FALSE) #> The plot contains 8 Cells
# Plotting the trajectory data of sample of cells (selected randomly) # in one figure plotSampleTracks( rmTD, Type="l", FixedField=FALSE, celNum=2, export = FALSE) #> The plot contains the following cells: #> 2 4
The following functions are meant to be run in an interactive fashion:
plot3DAllTracks(rmTD, VS=2, size=5)
plot3DTracks(rmTD, cells=1:10, size = 8)
The deep trajectory analysis includes a series of tools to examine the following metrics:
Persistence and Speed:
Mean Square Displacement:
These steps are meant to be run on larger datasets, including a larger number of cells. Here, we only show an example of how to run a DiRatio analysis, an MSD analysis and Velocity autocorrelation.
For more examples about Deep Trajectory Analysis, please visit: https://www.data-pulse.com/projects/2020/cellmigRation/cellmigRation_v01.html
Directionality Analysis. This analysis is performed via the
DiRatio() function. Results are saved in a CSV file. Plots can be generated using the
DiRatioPlot() function. Plots are saved in a newly created folder with the following extension:
## Directionality srmTD <- DiRatio(rmTD, export=TRUE) #> Results are saved as: Control-DRResultsTable.csv in your directory [use getwd()] DiRatioPlot(srmTD, export=TRUE) #> Plots are saved in a folder in your directory [use getwd()]
Mean Square Displacement. The MSD function automatically computes the mean square displacements across several sequential time intervals. MSD parameters are used to assess the area explored by cells over time. Usually, both the
ffLAG arguments are recommended to be set to 0.25 but since here we have only few frames per image, we will set it to 0.5.
rmTD<-MSD(object = rmTD, sLAG=0.5, ffLAG=0.5, export=TRUE)
Velocity AutoCorrelation. The
VeAutoCor() function automatically computes the changes in both speed and direction across several sequantial time intervals. Usually the
sLAG is recommended to be set to 0.25 but since here we have just few frames, we will set it to 0.5.
rmTD <- VeAutoCor( rmTD, TimeInterval=10, sLAG=0.5, sPLOT=TRUE, aPLOT=TRUE, export=FALSE)
FinRes() function automatically generates a data frame that contains all the results with or without the a correlation table.
rmTD <-FinRes(rmTD, ParCor=TRUE, export=FALSE) #>  "MSD (lag=1)" #>  "MSD slope" #>  "N-M best fit (Furth) [D]" #>  "N-M best fit (Furth) [P]" #>  "The significance of fitting D" #>  "The significance of fitting P" #>  "Velocity AutoCorrelation (lag=1)" #>  "2nd normalized Velocity AutoCorrelation" #>  "Intercept of VA quadratic model" #>  "Mean Velocity AutoCorrelation (all lags)"
Below, the first 5 columns of the output data.frame are shown.
|N-M best fit (Furth) [D]||65.573||100.000||11.378||28.880||99.999||99.999||99.999||11.341||45.047|
|N-M best fit (Furth) [P]||0.697||0.995||0.000||1.738||1.057||3.669||1.953||0.252||0.647|
|The significance of fitting D||NaN||NaN||NaN||NaN||NaN||NaN||NaN||NaN||NaN|
CellMigPCA() function automatically generates Principal Component Analysis based on a set of parameters selected by the user. The
CellMigPCAclust() function automatically generates clusters based on the Principal Component Analysis. This analysis is supposed to be run in an interactive session via the
Execution time: vignette built in: 1.95 minutes.
Session Info: shown below.
#> R version 4.1.0 (2021-05-18) #> Platform: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu (64-bit) #> Running under: Ubuntu 20.04.2 LTS #> #> Matrix products: default #> BLAS: /home/biocbuild/bbs-3.13-bioc/R/lib/libRblas.so #> LAPACK: /home/biocbuild/bbs-3.13-bioc/R/lib/libRlapack.so #> #> locale: #>  LC_CTYPE=en_US.UTF-8 #>  LC_NUMERIC=C #>  LC_TIME=en_GB #>  LC_COLLATE=C #>  LC_MONETARY=en_US.UTF-8 #>  LC_MESSAGES=en_US.UTF-8 #>  LC_PAPER=en_US.UTF-8 #>  LC_NAME=C #>  LC_ADDRESS=C #>  LC_TELEPHONE=C #>  LC_MEASUREMENT=en_US.UTF-8 #>  LC_IDENTIFICATION=C #> #> attached base packages: #>  stats #>  graphics #>  grDevices #>  utils #>  datasets #>  methods #>  base #> #> other attached packages: #>  kableExtra_1.3.4 #>  cellmigRation_1.0.0 #>  foreach_1.5.1 #>  dplyr_1.0.6 #>  ggplot2_3.3.3 #> #> loaded via a namespace (and not attached): #>  matrixStats_0.58.0 #>  webshot_0.5.2 #>  doParallel_1.0.16 #>  RColorBrewer_1.1-2 #>  httr_1.4.2 #>  tools_4.1.0 #>  backports_1.2.1 #>  bslib_0.2.5.1 #>  utf8_1.2.1 #>  R6_2.5.0 #>  DT_0.18 #>  rpart_4.1-15 #>  sm_2.2-5.6 #>  Hmisc_4.5-0 #>  DBI_1.1.1 #>  colorspace_2.0-1 #>  nnet_7.3-16 #>  withr_2.4.2 #>  sp_1.4-5 #>  tidyselect_1.1.1 #>  gridExtra_2.3 #>  compiler_4.1.0 #>  FME_126.96.36.199 #>  rvest_1.0.0 #>  htmlTable_2.2.1 #>  flashClust_1.01-2 #>  xml2_1.3.2 #>  labeling_0.4.2 #>  SpatialTools_1.0.4 #>  sass_0.4.0 #>  scales_1.1.1 #>  checkmate_2.0.0 #>  systemfonts_1.0.2 #>  stringr_1.4.0 #>  digest_0.6.27 #>  tiff_0.1-8 #>  foreign_0.8-81 #>  minqa_1.2.4 #>  rmarkdown_2.8 #>  svglite_2.0.0 #>  vioplot_0.3.6 #>  base64enc_0.1-3 #>  jpeg_0.1-8.1 #>  pkgconfig_2.0.3 #>  htmltools_0.5.1.1 #>  highr_0.9 #>  FactoMineR_2.4 #>  htmlwidgets_1.5.3 #>  rlang_0.4.11 #>  rstudioapi_0.13 #>  farver_2.1.0 #>  jquerylib_0.1.4 #>  spBayes_0.4-3 #>  generics_0.1.0 #>  zoo_1.8-9 #>  jsonlite_1.7.2 #>  magrittr_2.0.1 #>  Formula_1.2-4 #>  leaps_3.1 #>  Matrix_1.3-3 #>  Rcpp_1.0.6 #>  munsell_0.5.0 #>  fansi_0.4.2 #>  abind_1.4-5 #>  lifecycle_1.0.0 #>  scatterplot3d_0.3-41 #>  stringi_1.6.2 #>  yaml_2.2.1 #>  MASS_7.3-54 #>  rootSolve_188.8.131.52 #>  plyr_1.8.6 #>  grid_4.1.0 #>  parallel_4.1.0 #>  ggrepel_0.9.1 #>  crayon_1.4.1 #>  lattice_0.20-44 #>  splines_4.1.0 #>  knitr_1.33 #>  pillar_1.6.1 #>  tcltk_4.1.0 #>  reshape2_1.4.4 #>  codetools_0.2-18 #>  magic_1.5-9 #>  glue_1.4.2 #>  evaluate_0.14 #>  latticeExtra_0.6-29 #>  data.table_1.14.0 #>  deSolve_1.28 #>  png_0.1-7 #>  vctrs_0.3.8 #>  gtable_0.3.0 #>  purrr_0.3.4 #>  assertthat_0.2.1 #>  xfun_0.23 #>  coda_0.19-4 #>  viridisLite_0.4.0 #>  survival_3.2-11 #>  minpack.lm_1.2-1 #>  tibble_3.1.2 #>  iterators_1.0.13 #>  cluster_2.1.2 #>  ellipsis_0.3.2
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cellmigRation, don’t hesitate to email the authors or the maintainer.