Contents

Package: metagene
Modified: 17 october, 2017
Compiled: Mon Apr 30 20:09:10 2018
License: Artistic-2.0 | file LICENSE

1 Introduction

This experimental extension of metagene allows to use metagene to analyse RNA-Seq data. The quantification at the gene level of RNA-seq experiment is done directly from the profile of coverages and the differential expression level can be done via the similaRpeak package in order to compare profile of coverages. Design experiment can take into account multiple replicates divided into several groups of samples. As done by metagene in ChIP-Seq analysis, this experimental extension uses bootstrap to obtain a better estimation of the mean enrichment and the confidence interval for every group of samples.

This vignette will introduce all the main features of the metagene RNA-seq extension.

2 Loading the metagene package

library(metagene)

3 Inputs

3.1 Alignment files (BAM files)

There is no hard limit in the number of BAM files that can be included in an analysis (but with too many BAM files, memory may become an issue). BAM files must be indexed. For instance, if you use a file names file.bam, a file named file.bam.bai or file.bai must be present in the same directory.

The path (relative or absolute) to the BAM files must be in a vector:

bam_files <- 
c(system.file("extdata/cyto4.bam", package="metagene"),
  system.file("extdata/cyto3.bam", package="metagene"),
  system.file("extdata/nuc4.bam", package="metagene"),
  system.file("extdata/nuc3.bam", package="metagene"))

The possibility to use BAM file from single-ended of pair-ended RNA-seq experiment is available (see below)

3.2 Genomic regions

3.2.1 BED files

To compare custom regions of interest, it is possible to use a list of one or more BED files. Here, we use three genes. The name of the files (without the extension) will be used to name each gene. CAUTION : one BED files must be provided by gene of interest. Ranges into BED files must be the ranges of exons for this gene. (See for instance the ‘DPM1.bed’ BED file into ‘metagene/inst/extdata’).

regions <- 
c(system.file("extdata/DPM1.bed", package="metagene"),
system.file("extdata/NDUFAB1.bed", package="metagene"))

3.2.2 GRanges or GRangesList objects - Regions

As an alternative to a list of BED files, GRangesList objects can be used. CAUTION : elements of the GRangesList must be the genes of interest and ranges into each elements of the GRangesList must be the exons regions. You get an example of this with the regions GRangesList object above in the BED files section.

3.3 Design groups

A design group contains a set of BAM files that, when put together, represent a logical analysis. Furthermore, a design group contains the relationship between every BAM files present.

For instance, the design could be created directly from R.

Samples <- c("cyto4.bam",
            "cyto3.bam",
            "nuc4.bam",
            "nuc3.bam")
cyto <- c(1,1,0,0)
nucleo <- c(0,0,1,1)
mydesign <- cbind(Samples, cyto, nucleo)
mydesign <- data.frame(mydesign)
#to make cyto and nucleo colums numeric variables
mydesign$cyto <- cyto
mydesign$nucleo <- nucleo

4 Analysis steps

A typical metagene analysis will consist steps:

4.1 Creation of a metagene object for RNA-seq analysis

Two new arguments were introduced : paired_end and assay. Data used here came from the ENCSR000CPJ and ENCSR000CPK experiments (ENCODE) using paired-end polyA mRNA RNA-seq.

bam_files <- 
c(system.file("extdata/nuc4.bam", package="metagene"))
regions <- 
c(system.file("extdata/DPM1.bed", package="metagene"))
# Initialization
mg <- metagene$new(regions = regions, 
                    bam_files = bam_files, 
                    assay = 'rnaseq', 
                    paired_end = TRUE)
## Warning in .make_GAlignmentPairs_from_GAlignments(gal, strandMode = strandMode, :   1916 alignments with ambiguous pairing were dumped.
##     Use 'getDumpedAlignments()' to retrieve them from the dump environment.
mg$produce_table(normalization = 'RPM')
## Normalization done
## produce data table : RNA-Seq
mg$produce_data_frame()
## produce data frame : RNA-Seq
mg$plot(title = 'DPM1')
## Plot : RNA-Seq (One gene)

Dashed lines strand for exon separations.

NOTE : in paired_end, a warning message could appear to warn you about how many alignments with ambiguous pairing were dumped.

As you can see, it is not mandatory to explicitly call each step of the metagene analysis. For instance, in the previous example, the plot function call the other steps automatically with default values (the next section will describe the steps in more details).

The plot displayed shows the coverage of the gene DPM1 for the bam file nuc4.bam. Coverage is expressed in raw, because by default it is not normalized and orientation here is from 3’ to 5’ (to 0 from 1250 on horizontal axis) because of the strand orientation of the gene in BED files.

However, you can control normalization, flip and other arguments provided in produce_table and produce_data_frame methods. Let’s see that together.

4.2 Complete analysis

In order to fully control every step of a metagene analysis in RNA-Seq version, it is important to understand how a complete analysis is performed. If we are satisfied with the default values, it is not mandatory to explicitly call every step (as was shown in the previous section).

4.2.1 Initialization

During this step, the coverages for every regions specified are extracted from every BAM files. Let’s start with a bigger dataset as introduced in inputs section. Here, we will use four bam files and three genes.

bam_files <- 
c(system.file("extdata/cyto4.bam", package="metagene"),
  system.file("extdata/cyto3.bam", package="metagene"),
  system.file("extdata/nuc4.bam", package="metagene"),
  system.file("extdata/nuc3.bam", package="metagene"))
regions <- 
c(system.file("extdata/DPM1.bed", package="metagene"),
system.file("extdata/NDUFAB1.bed", package="metagene"))
mg <- metagene$new(regions = regions, 
                    bam_files = bam_files, 
                    assay = 'rnaseq', 
                    paired_end = TRUE)
## Warning in .make_GAlignmentPairs_from_GAlignments(gal, strandMode = strandMode, :   8737 alignments with ambiguous pairing were dumped.
##     Use 'getDumpedAlignments()' to retrieve them from the dump environment.
## Warning in .make_GAlignmentPairs_from_GAlignments(gal, strandMode = strandMode, :   7738 alignments with ambiguous pairing were dumped.
##     Use 'getDumpedAlignments()' to retrieve them from the dump environment.
## Warning in .make_GAlignmentPairs_from_GAlignments(gal, strandMode = strandMode, :   3394 alignments with ambiguous pairing were dumped.
##     Use 'getDumpedAlignments()' to retrieve them from the dump environment.
## Warning in .make_GAlignmentPairs_from_GAlignments(gal, strandMode = strandMode, :   2168 alignments with ambiguous pairing were dumped.
##     Use 'getDumpedAlignments()' to retrieve them from the dump environment.

4.2.2 Producing the table

No new parameters was added to the produce_table method. However, new colums to the table were added but is completely transparent for user. Colums names are now : . Regions was kept and not replaced by gene but stands for gene names. Data were not binned as for ChIP-Seq analysis and bin column was replaced by nuc (for nucleotide) column.

mg$produce_table(flip_regions = TRUE, normalization = 'RPM')
## Normalization done
## produce data table : RNA-Seq
## RNA-Seq flip/unflip
tab <- mg$get_table()

Here the flip argument is TRUE. Thus, all genes will be oriented from 5’ to 3’ on the metagene plot. The ‘Reads Per Millions’ (RPM) normalization was done.

4.2.3 Producing the data.frame

The metagene plot are produced using the ggplot2 package, which require a data.frame as input. During this step, the values of the ribbon are calculated. Metagene RNA-Seq version uses “bootstrap” to obtain a better estimation of the mean coverage for every positions in each group samples.

mg$produce_data_frame()
## produce data frame : RNA-Seq

An additionnal option was implemented into the produce_data_frame method. The possibility to remove values which are under a certain threshold. This option is used in order to remove, for instance, exon or part of exon for which there is no data and thereby obtain a profile without gaps. There are the new arguments to do that : (1) ‘avoid_gaps’ a logical argument to allow this removal or not, (2) ‘bam_name’ a character argument that give the name of the bam file to take as reference for values to remove also for other samples (default : the first sample in table) (3) ‘gaps_threshold’ a numeric threshold under which value will be removed from data_frame (default = 0).

bam_files <- 
c(system.file("extdata/cyto4.bam", package="metagene"))
region <- 
c(system.file("extdata/NDUFAB1.bed", package="metagene"))
mg <- metagene$new(regions = region, bam_files = bam_files, assay = 'rnaseq')
mg$produce_table(flip_regions = TRUE, normalization = 'RPM')
## Normalization done
## produce data table : RNA-Seq
## RNA-Seq flip/unflip
mg$plot(title = 'with all normalized values')
## produce data frame : RNA-Seq
## Plot : RNA-Seq (One gene)

mg$produce_data_frame(avoid_gaps = TRUE,
                        bam_name = "cyto4",
                        gaps_threshold = 30)
## produce data frame : RNA-Seq
mg$plot(title = 'without normalized values under 30')
## Plot : RNA-Seq (One gene)